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Peter Francis, Jr. -- Abbreviated Resume


  • Director, Center for Bead Research (original name: Bead Research Bureau) from 1979
  • Webmaster, from 1997
  • Symposium Director, Bead Expo (biennial conferences) 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000
  • Founder, Society of Bead Researchers 1981
  • Honorary Researcher, Denver Museum of Natureand Science from 1995
  • Honorary Scholar, National Museum of the Philippines from 1992.
  • Administrator, Horace C. Beck Fund from 1991.
  • Member Advisory Board, The Bead Museum, Prescott/Glendale AZ from 1985
  • Contributing Editor, Ornament Magazine, Los Angeles 1979
  • Charter Member of six Bead Societies.

Grants and Prizes

(if I have overlooked any, please let me know)

1999 Grant for color photos in The Asian Maritime Bead Trade, Bead Society of Los Angeles

      Discretionary grant, Portland Bead Society

1998 Discretionary Grant, Bead Society of Greater Chicago.

1996 Guido Award, the Bead Study Trust (U.K.)

1995 Grant from Northwest Bead Society for research in Europe.

1994 Discretionary grant, Portland Bead Society

1993 Discretionary grant, Northwest Bead Society

1992 Travel grant from Smithsonian Institution to participate in the excavation at Arikamedu, India.

      Grant from Bead Society of Greater Washington to research South Indian stone beads.

1990 Grant from the Asian Arts Council of New York (affiliated with the Rockefeller Foundation) for expenses to lecture at SPAFA bead workshop, Bangi, Malaysia.

      Grant from the Bead Society (Los Angeles) for further research in Southeast Asia.

1987 Kerr History Prize awarded by the New York State Historical Association for "The Beads That Did Not Buy Manhattan Island."

      Grant from the Hagop Kevorkian Fund, New York, to catalogue the beads from Nishapur, Iran, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

      Grant from the Bead Society, Los Angeles, for research travel in Southeast Asia for the Indian Ocean Bead Trade Project.

1985 Dow Creativity Fellowship from Alden B. Dow Foundation, Midland, MI, to experiment with glass beadmaking techniques.

1983 Korean Bead Research Tour grant, on behalf of the Society of Bead Researchers to study beads in Korea, Thailand, Taiwan and India.

1982 Dorothy Wetmore Gerrity Prize for Bead Research 

Conferences, Lectures and Workshops:

1999 Lecture at Post-graduate Institute of Archaeology, Colombo, Sri Lanka; lecture at South Asian Archaeology '99 conference, Leiden, the Netherlands, lecture and workshop for Bead Society of Great Britain.

1998 Symposium Director and lecture at Bead Expo '98, Santa Fe NM.

1997 Lectures at Denver Museum of Natural History and Denver Art Museum.

1996 Lecture at Denver Museum of Natural History. Director and lecturer at Bead Expo'96, Santa Fe, NM.

1995 Lectures at Denver Museum of Natural History and Loveland Museum and Gallery, Denver/Loveland CO. Lecture on Beads from Mantai at Commission of Archaeology (KAVA), Bonn, Germany. Workshops for members of the Archaeology and Anthropology Divisions at the National Museum of the Philippines, Manila.

1994 Director and lecturer at Bead Expo '94, Santa Fe, NM.

1993 Lectures delivered at the Asian Art Museum, San Francisco; Deccan College, Poona, India.

1992 Workshop lecturer, SPAFA Consultative Workshop on Beads Analysis, Malaysia. Workshop at Arikamedu excavations, India. Symposium director and lecturer at "Bead Trade in the Americas" Conference, Santa Fe NM.

1991 Lectures at Ayala Museum, Manila; Ganesha Society, Jakarta; SPAFA Consultative Workshop on City Conservation, Banten, Indonesia; Siam Society,Bangkok. Workshops at Surabaya Museum, Indonesia; PPAN Branch, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; National Museum, Manila. Lectures on Fulk es-Salama during UNESCO Silk Roads Project; lecture at Bangkok Conference.

1990 Lecture at Archaeology Department, Harvard University.Second International Bead Conference, Washington, D.C. Lectures delivered at Archaeology and History Departments, University of Ghana, Legon.1989 Lectures at the Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology, Brown University, Bristol, R.I.; National Museum of the Philippines, Manila; Oriental Ceramic Society, Manila; National Research Center on Archaeology, Jakarta; Sarawak Museum, Kuching, East Malaysia; National Museum, Singapore; Division of Archaeology/FAD,Bangkok.

1988 "Beads at the Crossroads of Continents," submitted to Crossroads of Continents symposium, Smithsonian Institution,. Lectures at Pondicherry Historical Society, Pondicherry, India; Deccan College, Poona, India.

1986 Advisory Committee, and lecture. Shell Bead Conference, Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester, N.Y. "Beads for the Indian Archaeologist," Special Summer Session on New Archaeology, Deccan College, Poona, India. "Glass Beads at Arikamedu," Seminar on Ancient Indian Glass, Pondicherry Historical Society, Pondicherry, India.

1985 "Beyond Beads: Bead Research and the Sciences of Humanity," First International Bead Conference, Long Beach, CA.1983 "The Beads from Bagor," (with V.N. Misra) XV Annual Conference of the Indian Archaeological Society, Poona, India.

1982 "Some Thoughts on Glass Beadmaking," Glass Trade Bead Conference, Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester, N.Y.1980 "Toward an Interdisciplinary Study of Early Human Adornment in India," Archaeology-1980 Conference, Allahabad, India.

Special Projects:

  • Asian Maritime Bead Trade to be published by the University of Hawai'i Press, book formally accepted for publication 1999.
  • Sri Lankan beads in conjunction with the Postgraduate Institute of Archaeology and cooperating museums and archaeologists. Begun 1999.
  • Middle Eastern Glass Bead Project final report in Margaretologist 12:2. 1994-99.
  • St. Catherines, Georgia (USA) Spanish mission 17th with 57,000 beads, working in conjunction with American Museum of Natural History, New York. Will publish a volume co-authored by Lori Pendleton 1998-
  • Berenike, Egypt excavation, major Red Sea port for about 1000 years. Member of the U. Deleware/Leiden U. excavation team, 1998, joining again in 2001.
  • Indo-Pacific glass beads analysis. Furnished samples to Dr. Ron Hancock of U. Toronto. 1998.
  • The Seed Bead Project Ongoing project since 1979. Most recently visited the Ornela factory in Zasada, the Czech Republic; published results of the project, tracing names, terms, manufactures, manufacturing processes, etc. in Margaretologist 10:2. 1997
  • Glass beads in Europe before Venice. Consulting with museums and researchers in Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland and Denmark. 1997
  • Study of beads from Jamestown, Virginia on site. 1997
  • Oldest Beads in America DenverMuseum of Natural History and Smithsonian Institution, mostly the Lindenmeier site, Colorado,1996-7
  • Denver Museum of Natural History, study of beadwork collection to determine dates of beads, 1995.
  • Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Society. Cataloguing beads from slaver shipwreck, Henrietta Marie, 1994.
  • Awad Foundation. Cataloguing beads from Fustat (Old Cairo), Egypt, 1994.
  • Excavations at Arikamedu, India, University of Pennsylvania and U. Madras, Member of team 1991-92 season; writing final reports on glass and stone beadmaking, shell bangle manufacturing, clay spindle whorls, imported glass 1993-present.
  • Stuart collection of Afghan beads, classifying, cataloguing, Charles Beatty Museum (Dublin, Ireland) exhibit, 1993- present.
  • Bead Sample Card Collection Project, Center for Bead Research 1993-present.
  • Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. Cataloging beads from Classical and Early Islamic Sites, 1993.
  • SPAFA Consultative Workshop on Beads Analysis. Member of faculty, November 1992, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.
  • Integral Study of the Silk Roads: Roads of Dialogue, UNESCO, member of Maritime Route Team, December 1990 - February 1991.
  • West African Bead Study Tour, covered Ivory Coast, Ghana and Togo, 1990.
  • Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Consultant on the beads in the ethnographic collections in the Crossroads of Continents exhibit. 1988. This has resulted in two Smithsonian publications 1990, 1994.
  • Pondicherry Museum, Pondicherry, India. Classifying and cataloguing the beads from Arikamedu, designing museum displays for the museum, writing a guidebook and a scientific report on the assemblage. 1983 - present.
  • Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Cataloguing the beads from Early Islamic Nishapur, Iran. Excavator: Charles K. Wilkinson. 1987.
  • Columbia University, New York. Cataloguing the beads excavated from Proto-Neolithic Shanidar Cave and Zawi Chemi, Iraq. Excavators: Ralph and Rose Solecki. 1987.
  • University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Cataloguing the beads from Reese Bay, Alaska, an early Russian contact site. Excavator: Jean S. Aigner. 1987.
  • University of Chicago. Cataloguing the beads from Mantai, Sri Lanka, an early Medieval site. Excavator: John Carswell. 1986 - 1988.
  • Deccan College, Poona, India. Examining, cataloguing, and preparing reports on beads from Patne, Langnaj, Bagor, Inamgaon, and other sites. Excavators: Deccan College faculty members. 1981 - 1986.

Selected Publications

(Note the following list does not include publications in The Bead Journal/Ornament, bead society newsletters, The Bead Forum, The Bead Study Trust Newsletter, The Bead Museum Quarterly or The Margaretologist).

Abbreviations: WBMS = World of Beads Monograph Series; OPCBR = Occasional Papers of the Center for Bead Research. CCBR = Contributions of the Center for Bead Research.

Titles in
red are out of print. Sorry, we cannot furnish copies of papers. Many titles are available in the bookstore. You can search for their availability on the Site Search Engine.


The Story of Venetian Beads

 WBMS 1, Lapis Route, Lake Placid.

The Czech Bead Story

 WBMS 2, Lapis Route, Lake Placid.

Third World Beadmakers WBMS 3, Lapis Route, Lake Placid.

A Short Dictionary of Bead Terms and Types

 WBMS 4, Lapis Route, Lake Placid.


Collecting the Beads of Venice Tri-State Trader 13(2):1, 41.

The Beads of Bohemia Tri-State Trader 13(3):1, 49.

An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Question of Early Human Adornment in India, paper at Archaeology -- 1980 conference, Allahabad. Published in 1997 as pp. 218-31 in V. D. Misra and J. N. Pal, eds. Indian Prehistory: 1980. Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology, U. Allalhabad. Allahabad.


Early Human Adornment in India, Part I: The Upper Paleolithic Bulletin Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institution 40:137-40.

Collecting Beads: The Primary Centers Antique Trader Weekly 23(18):70-1.

Review of Karklins and Sprague Antique Trader Weekly (29 July).

Review and Kelly and Judd Antique Trader Weekly (12 August).

Review of Kidd. Antique Trader Weekly (19 August).

Highlights of the Indian Agate Bead Trade Newsletter Society of Jewellery Historians 2(1):5-6.


Experiments for Early Techniques for Making Whole Shells into Beads Current Anthropology 23(6):713-4.

The Areca-Nut Object: Is It a Bead? Puratattva 10:95-9. [dated 1978-79]

Gem Olivine from Afghanistan Lapidary Journal 36(9):1596-7.

The Ostrich, Ostrich Eggs, and Ostrich Eggshell Beads Man and Environment 7:142-6.

Early Human Adornment in India, Part II: The Mesolithic Bulletin Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institution 41:59-67.

A Handbook of Bead Materials

 WBMS 5, Lapis Route, Lake Placid.

Indian Agate Beads

 WBMS 6, Lapis Route, Lake Placid.

The Glass Beads of India WBMS 7, Lapis Route, Lake Placid.


The Eternal Lore of Indian Agate Beads Antique Trader Weekly 27(4):63-5.

Ratanpur: The Village of Gems Lapidary Journal 36(12):1980-7.

Books, Beads and a Living Collection Collectrix 5:30-2, 38-9.

Some Thoughts on Glass Beadmaking pp. 193-202 in Charles F. Hayes, ed. Proceedings of the 1982 Glass Trade Bead Conference Research Records 16, Rochester [NY] Museum and Science Center.


Plants as Human Adornment in India Economic Botany 38(2):194-209. (available here)

Some Observations on the Glass Beads of Arikamedu Revue Historique de Pondichery 30:156-61.

Review of Karklins Historical Archaeology 18:130-2.

A Note Journal of Glass Studies 26:152-3.

Ancient Egyptian Broadcollar Reborn Hong Kong Jewellery 1(21):44-8.

The Boom in Olympic Pin Collecting Antique Trader Weekly 28(29):60-3.

Indian Agate Beads: The World's Oldest Living Jewellery Industry Hong Kong Jewellery 2(22):70-5.


Baba Ghor and the Ratanpur Rakshisha Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 29:198-204.

Jade Beads and the Conquest of Mexico Lapidary Journal 38(10):1328-31.

Pearls and the Discovery of America Lapidary Journal 38(12):1512-7.

A Survey of Beads in Korea OPCBR 1, Lake Placid.


The Beads that Did Not Buy Manhattan Island New York History 67(1):1-22.

Collar Beads: A New Typology and a New Perspective on Ancient Indian Beadmaking Bulletin Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institution 45:117-21.

The Bloom of a Thousand Flowers; Millefiori and Mosaic Glass Antique Trader Weekly 30(13):68-70.

Land of Beads Craft International April/May/June :22, 36.

Archaeology: Indian Antiquity Lapidary Journal 39(12):45-55.

Chinese Glass Beads: A Review of the Evidence OPCBR 2, Lake Placid.

Beads and the Discovery of the New World OPCBR 3, Lake Placid.


Bead Emporium: A Guide to the Beads from Arikamedu in the Pondicherry Museum, Museum Publications 2, Pondicherry Museum, Pondicherry.

Report on the Beads from Reese Bay, Unalaska Island, Alaska, Excavated from a Longhouse in 1986 by Jean S. Aigner of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks CCBR 1, Lake Placid.

Report on the Beads from Nishapur, Iran, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art Obtained from the Museum's Excavations under Charles K. Wilkinson CCBR 2, Lake Placid.

Review of Tewari Bulletin Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institution 46:181-4.


The Beads of India Arts of Asia 18(2):102-10.

The Glass Trade Beads of Europe: Their Manufacture, Their History, and Their Identification

 WBMS 8, Lapis Route, Lake Placid.

Pecking and Beads Lapidary Journal 42(5):57-62.

Simojovel, Mexico: Village of Amber Lapidary Journal 42(8):55-62.

Preliminary Report on the Beads from Siraf, Iran, in the Department of Oriental Antiquities, British Museum

 CCBR 3, Lake Placid.


[with G.L. Badam] Molluscan Shell Beads from Inamgaon pp. 665-9 in M.K. Dhavalikar, H.D. Sankalia and Z.D. Ansari eds. Excavations at Inamgaon Vol. 1, Part ii Deccan College, Poona.


Glass Beads in Asia, Part I: Introduction Asian Perspectives 28(1):1-21.

Beads and the Bead Trade in the North Pacific Region p. 341 in William W. Fitzhugh and Aron Crowell, eds. The Crossroads of Continents, Smithsonian Instißtution, Washington.

The Manufacture of Beads from Shell pp. 25-36 in Charles F. Hayes III, ed. Proceedings of the 1986 Shell Bead Conference Research Records 20. Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester.

Beads of the Early Islamic Period Beads 1:21-39.

The Bead Dictionary WBMS 9, Lapis Route, Lake Placid.

Man Makes His Mark: 7500 Years of the Seal OPCBR 4, Lake Placid.

Review of Villegas Asian Perspectives 28(1):91-3.

Beads and the Bead Trade in Southeast Asia

 CCBR 4, Lake Placid.

The Type Collection of Beads from Archaeological Contexts in the Philippine National Museum

 CCBR 5, Lake Placid.

Heirloom and Ethnographically Collected Beads in Southeast Asia

 CCBR 6, Lake Placid.

Trade Beads in America Antique Trader Weekly 33(9):64-7.


Glass Beads in Asia, Part II: Indo-Pacific Beads Asian Perspectives 29(1):1-23.

Two Bead Strands from Andhra Pradesh, India Asian Perspectives 29(1):45-50.

East and West: The Ancient Gem Trade Between India and Rome Gemological Digest 3(1):33-9.

The Secret of Papanaidupet Glastechnische Berichte 63:210-12.

Glass Beads of China Arts of Asia 20(5):118-27.

Beads in the Philippines Arts of Asia 20(6):97-107.

Beadmaking in Islam: The African Trade and the Rise of Hebron Beads 2:15-28.

Review of Engle Beads 2:96-9.

BEADlieve It or Not!

 Center for Bead Research, Lake Placid.


Beadmaking in Arikamedu and Beyond World Archaeology 23(1):28-43.

Glass Beads in Malaya: A Reassessment Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 64(1):97-118.

Beads in Indonesia: A Review of the Evidence Asian Perspectives 30(2):218-41.

Some Preliminary Remarks on the Identification of Beads SPAFA Journal 1(2):11-23.


Heirlooms of the Hills: Southeast Asia Beads and People Series 1, Center for Bead Research.

Review: Picard and Picard Beads 3:89-91 (dated 1991).

20 Easy Steps to Identifying Most Beads in Most Collections C.B.R. Workshop Handbook 1, Center for Bead Research.


Forward, pp. ix-xi in Sumarah Adhyatman and Redjeki Arafin Manik-Manik di Indonesia/Beads in Indonesia, Penerbit Djambatan, Jakarta.

Common Intrigue Lapidary Journal 47(3):41-4, 96-8.

Sumatra's Lost Kingdom Lapidary Journal 47(7):108-18.

Silk Roads Project Update: Maritime Route Report. Bulletin of the Asia Institute 3:11.

Review of Kurinsky Beads 4:65-9 (dated 1992).

Where Beads are Loved: Ghana, West Africa Beads and People Series 2, Center for Bead Research.

Advanced Bead Identification C.B.R. Workshop Handbook 2 Lapis Route, Lake Placid.

Review of Begley and DePuma Rome and India in Archaeological News 18:50-2.


Beads of the World Schiffer, Atglen, PA.

Beads at the Crossroads of Continents pp. 281-305 in William W. Fitzhugh and Val‚rie Chaussonnete, eds. Anthropology of the North Pacific Rim Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.

Toward a Social History of Beadmakers Beads 6:61-80.

Sowing the Beads of Change, Part 1 Lapidary Journal 48(7):79-84

Sowing the Beads of Change, Part 2 Lapidary Journal 48(8):49-54.

African trade Beads Antique Trader Weekly 38(20):96-101.


De kralen waarmee het eiland Manhattan niet is betaald/ The Beads That Did Not Buy Manhattan Island pp. 53-69 in Alexandra von Dongan, ed. One Man's Trash Is Another Man's Treasure Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterßdam (reprint of 1986a with Dutch translation).


Beads, the Bead Trade and State Development in Southeast Asia, pp. 139-52 in Amara Srisuchat, ed. Ancient Trade and Cultural Cntacts in Southeast Asia National Cultural Commission, Bangkok

Marine Shells at Arikamedu, pp. 391-5 in Vimala Begley, ed. The Ancient Port of Arikamedu: New Excavations and Researches 1989-1992, Volume One. École Française d'Extrême-Orient, Centre d'Histoire et d'Archéologie, Pondicherry.


The Beads That Did Not Buy Manhattan Island New York History 78(4):411-28 (reprint)

In Press: (Selected Titles; some titles are approximate)

The Asian Maritime Bead Trade University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

The Beads from Mantai, Glass Bangles from Mantai, Western Geographic Knowledge of Sri Lanka and Mantai in John Carswell, ed. Excavations at Mantai.

Beads and Objects of Personal Adornment in Vimala Begley, ed. The Ancient Port of Arikamedu: New Excavations and Researches 1989-1992, Volume One.

In Preparation

Beads and Personal Adornments from Berenike U. Leiden, Leiden (The Netherlands)

The Beads from Santa Catalina (St. Catherines) Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, New York.


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